Traditional contract law classifies contracts into bilateral and unilateral contracts. Bilateral contracts are those involving promises made by all parties, whereas unilateral contracts involve promises made by only one of the parties. This lesson explores the distinction between bilateral contracts (where both parties make promises) and unilateral ones (where only one party makes a promise) and the effect on the obligations of the parties resulting from the classification. This lesson ends with an analysis exercise on unilateral and bilateral contracts.
1L - First Year Topics
This lesson is designed to familiarize law students with legal materials that can be used when dealing with juries. It covers jury instructions, voir dire, and jury verdicts.
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Effective December 1, 2006, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure were amended to reflect changes in discovery resulting from the electronic storage of information. CALI's lessons do not yet reflect these amendments. As each lesson is revised to reflect the amended rules, the lesson's catalog description will be updated to enable students and faculty to easily tell which lessons include the amended rules.
This lesson will instruct students about issues associated with California ballot measures including locating documents, identifying legislative intent, and examining legal challenges.
This lesson will introduce you to all of the types of primary sources you will encounter when researching California law. Topics include the Constitution, Statutes and Codes, administrative law, court system, and researching cases in California. No prior knowledge of California legal materials is required.
This lesson will serve as an introduction to some of the secondary resources available in the field of California law.
This lesson will help you master legal citations using the California Style Manual, Fourth Edition (hereinafter "Manual").
This lesson focuses on case briefing. The lesson will guide students through cases identifying the most important part of cases to prepare for classes.
This exercise provides an overview of the concept of causation. Factual cause is distinguished from legal cause, and causation in general from mens rea and attempt. Specific issues covered include simultaneous causes, different victim, different manner, and different injury.
This exercise begins by illustrating the distinction between cause in fact and legal or proximate cause and then utilizes questions intended to familiarize the student with the but for or sine qua non test and the substantial factor test. The exercise also covers issues relating to concurrent cause dilemmas and problems in identifying which harm was caused to the plaintiff by multiple negligent defendants.
This exercise builds upon the tutorial entitled Causation in Fact and that lesson should be completed prior to this exercise. In this exercise, the evidentiary burdens of proof are considered in relation to the use of direct and circumstantial evidence and the use of expert testimony. The exercises illuminate issues surrounding problems of proving who or what caused the plaintiff's harm. Burden shifting devices employed by courts in special situations are also considered.
One of the rules that limits a plaintiff's recovery for breach of contract is the requirement that damages must be proven to a reasonable certainty. This lesson explores that principle. The lesson can be run either as an introduction to certainty or as a review after you have completed your study.